*FREE* Varieties of Meaning : The 2002 Jean Nicod Lectures download pdf

*FREE* Varieties of Meaning : The 2002 Jean Nicod Lectures download pdf

Ruth Garrett Millikan,: Varieties of Meaning : The 2002 Jean Nicod Lectures

Varieties of Meaning : The 2002 Jean Nicod Lectures


Many different things are said to have meaning: people mean to do various things; tools and other artifacts are meant for various things; people mean various things by using words and sentences; natural signs mean things; representations in people's minds also presumably mean things. In Varieties of Meaning, Ruth Garrett Millikan argues that these different kinds of meaning can be understood only in relation to each other. What does meaning in the sense of purpose (when something is said to be meant for something) have to do with meaning in the sense of representing or signifying? Millikan argues that the explicit human purposes, explicit human intentions, are represented purposes. They do not merely represent purposes; they possess the purposes that they represent. She argues further that things that signify, intentional signs such as sentences, are distinguished from natural signs by having purpose essentially; therefore, unlike natural signs, intentional signs can misrepresent or be false. Part I discusses "Purposes and Cross-Purposes" -- what purposes are, the purposes of people, of their behaviors, of their body parts, of their artifacts, and of the signs they use. Part II then describes a previously unrecognized kind of natural sign, "locally recurrent" natural signs, and several varieties of intentional signs, and discusses the ways in which representations themselves are represented. Part III offers a novel interpretation of the way language is understood and of the relation between semantics and pragmatics. Part IV discusses perception and thought, exploring stages in the development of inner representations, from the simplest organisms whose behavior is governed by perception-action cycles to the perceptions and intentional attitudes of humans.

Everyone knows that brontosauruses don't eat meat--or at least they're not supposed to. But one day Bronto gets a terrible Varieties of Meaning : The 2002 Jean Nicod Lectures pdf stomachache. When the doctor takes an X ray, it shows Bronto's ribs, his stomach, some trees, and . . . . something Bronto will never forget! With hilarious illustrations and a surprise ending, here is a wacky story that gives new meaning to the phrase Watch what you eat! Is it possible to make sense of something as elusive as creativity? The history of democracy, in addition to being a tale of social movements and political and economic developments, is also a story of ideas. In Toward Democracy, James T. Kloppenberg explores this story of ideas, focusing on the evolution of democracy in Britain's North American colonies and then in the United States. By concentrating on historical figures whose pivotal texts and framed arguments helped form the concept of democracy, he examines how American ideas and practices both descended and diverged from earlier European, and particularly English, models. Kloppenberg also shows how American thought, in return, profoundly influenced European ideas about democracy-both negatively and positively. Toward Democracy presents the history of democracy from the perspective of those who helped to form its principles. Kloppenberg neither condemns nor endorses these thinkers, but rather offers a fresh look at how these initial democratic ideals have shifted over time. He argues that democracy has remained an ethical model rather than a mere set of institutions, and sheds light on the many failures faced by democracy and its advocates.

Author: Ruth Garrett Millikan,
Number of Pages: 254 pages
Published Date: 01 Sep 2006
Publisher: MIT Press Ltd
Publication Country: Massachusetts, United States
Language: English
ISBN: 9780262633420
Download Link: Click Here


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